February 21, 2013 § Leave a comment
Here’s a short piece I wrote for the Guardian this week: Eradicating ecocide: why business leaders must step up to the challenge At the bottom you’ll find a link to a really interesting conference organised by the Climate Psychology Alliance, exploring the psychological implications of Polly Higgins Eradicating Ecocide campaign. Polly herself is the keynote speaker, the respondents are psychoanalyst Sally Weintrobe and ecopsychologist Sandra White and I will be helping facilitate the day’s workshops and discussions. It’s on Saturday 16th March at the Refugee Therapy Centre in London. Book now. This is one not to miss.
January 28, 2013 § 1 Comment
The Green Deal is the government’s latest offer on climate change. Is it a good offer or another policy that colludes with people’s desire that climate change shouldn’t really affect their lives?
Denial and disavowal
Denial is a familiar idea in relation to climate change. Its most common form is not the outright “black-is-white” argument of the denialist industry but the common capacity to keep the awkward knowledge split off in one part of the mind so that ‘life as usual’ can go on. Psychoanalysis often refers to this as ‘disavowal’. People know and don’t know simultaneously. Uncomfortable knowledge is shelved. The awkward facts of climate change are put in a separate box. In this way the anxiety, guilt and disturbance they cause can be managed. Loss doesn’t have to be faced. Anne Karpf described this process well in her recent Guardian article Climate change, you can’t ignore it and I discussed it in my piece The Id and the Eco in Aeon magazine a couple of months ago.
Also familiar are the contradictory statements and policies of governments and big institutions as they respond to pressure from vested interests and stakeholders. BIS (the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills), the Treasury and DECC (the Department for Energy and Climate Change) set off in mutually opposing directions. The ‘joined-up government’ trumpeted by the Blair administration in 1998 as a solution to ‘wicked’ problems like climate change was quietly dropped. Cameron and co have no interest in reviving it.
What is less familiar is the way a process of denial can be enacted within a specific public policy. This is an altogether more insidious process as it contributes to confusion in the public mind, reinforcing and legitimising the status quo of disavowal. The government’s Green Deal, launched this week as a programme to upgrade the UK housing stock, is a sad example.
The need for big changes
In 2006 the government-commissioned Stern report was clear. Stern argued that dealing with climate change required investment of 1% of GDP a year in order to avoid much greater costs later on. Stern later agreed that his figures were optimistic and that 2% was more realistic. Others suggested that even that was inadequate. What was not up for debate was the fact that climate change will cost money. Priorities need to be realigned and the economy transformed.
When you come down to specifics, research on the UK housing stock is equally clear. Both Brenda Boardman’s research for Oxford University and energy modelling done by DECC and the Scottish Government show that we can’t meet our obligations under the Climate Change Acts unless almost all the possible upgrades to existing houses are made. This includes a long list of projects whose costs outweigh their monetary savings.
So what does the Green Deal offer? It provides loans to householders and landlords that are recouped through energy companies making a charge on fuel bills. At its heart is the idea of the ‘Golden Rule’. No upgrades to housing should be made that cost more than the savings that can be made on energy bills.
Perversion and the avoidance of reality
This is a policy which simultaneously accepts and denies reality – the process at the heart of disavowal. On the one hand the Green Deal acknowledges that something must be done to reduce the energy demand of UK housing. On the other it suggests that this is a matter of choice not necessity, that no loss to the individual will be involved and that the key consideration is financial. Many of the actions which in reality are needed are placed out of the frame, along with the arguments for taking any of them.
The perverse lie at the heart of the Green Deal is the idea that each energy-saving action should have a ‘payback’ time. When governments in the 1960s provided grants for toilets, bathrooms and electricity in the nation’s run-down Victorian housing, the ‘paybacks’ on these works were not calculated. The motive was to provide decent, healthy housing for all the population. In the 21st century a similar programme is needed to transform the housing stock to cope with climate change – a programme needed once again because it is the necessary, decent, human thing to do.
The Green Deal policy could be seen as a prime example of what Paul Hoggett (in his essay Climate change in a perverse culture) describes as a perverse culture, where processes of thinking have been corrupted and policy-makers operate in an ‘as-if’ world where it becomes more important to appear to do something than to actually make a difference. This is a world in which evasion, half-truths and collusion thrive. Morality is blurred. Targets are substituted for actions. Tricks are preferred to truth. Complexity provides a smokescreen for ineffectiveness.
Newspapers from the Guardian to the Daily Mail have predictably picked up on the problems at the heart of the Green Deal. Its confusing rules, complex processes and muddled finances are easy to pick holes in. Sadly, instead of offering leadership that spells out the unpalatable truths, accompanied by genuine incentives to make meaningful change, the Green Deal both colludes with a public that prefers not to face the issue and provides a framework for further denial.
 Hoggett, Paul (2012) Climate Change in a perverse culture in Weintrobe Sally (ed.) Engaging with climate change: psychoanalytic and interdisciplinary perspectives. London: Routledge
January 3, 2013 § Leave a comment
In December the Guardian asked me to write a short piece predicting what I thought 2013 might bring in regard to sustainability and business. My feeling is that we face a much more difficult situation than we did 3 years ago and that we need to examine what lies behind the feelings of indifference we encounter so strongly. You can read the full piece here:
December 6, 2012 § Leave a comment
Thinking about climate change makes people feel helpless and anxious – but that’s why we must talk about it openly.
Take a look at his piece I wrote for Aeon magazine
Smart kettles and social practices: can we design our way to sustainability or do we need to understand the meaning of what we do?
November 29, 2012 § Leave a comment
In a recent post on the Green Alliance blog Chris Sherwin argued that better design was the route to more sustainable behaviour. A more psycho-social approach suggests that understanding the meaning of what we do may be just as important.
Sherwin’s example was the kettle. It may be responsible for 4% of UK household emissions, so reducing that figure would be useful. Sherwin’s answers are better water-level indicators, bringing back the old-fashioned whistle and convincing people that water at 90ºc is still fine for making tea. (George Orwell, author of the classic essay ‘A nice cup of tea’ would not agree about that!)
Like many ordinary household behaviours boiling the kettle and making the tea is what social scientists call a ‘social practice’. It is heavy with meaning. People feel that the way they do it matters. It expresses relationships and values. It symbolises and expresses people’s sense of identity. It’s done slightly differently in different families. It may be part of a negotiation around leisure and work time or symbolise willingness to share troubles. It connects people into wider systems of trade and power. In the home context tea-making is strongly linked to people’s sense of themselves as home-makers, generous, maternal or caring. In the workplace the tea break and how long it takes is a key element in employer-employee relations.
The meaning of small acts
A while ago, I asked a number of people to reflect a little more deeply on why they overfilled their kettles. These are some of the answers they gave:
“It means I get a longer break – it makes staring out of the window and day-dreaming legitimate. If I put in the right amount I’d be in and out of the kitchen in seconds.” Joe used the kettle to ‘steal’ a few more minutes from his employer. He didn’t have the status or perhaps the courage to take the break he wanted. Putting in just the right amount of water would remove his daydreaming time or leave him hanging around in the kitchen feeling anxious that he would be challenged.
“What if there isn’t enough for everyone? I’d feel awful if someone had to wait while I started again. It feels like meanness, being ungenerous.” For Sheila, the behaviour was deeply connected to her sense of herself as a generous, loving person. She also kept the heating and lights on throughout the house in order to make it feel welcoming should anyone drop in. Putting in just the right amount of water would make her feel she was being selfish and lacking in her role as home-maker.
“It gives me time to lay out the tea-tray.” Doris was in her 80s. She followed a familiar ritual of putting milk in a jug, arranging cups and saucers, adding a slice of cake or two biscuits on a favourite plate, warming the pot and making a small pot of tea. This all went on a trolley ready to be wheeled through to the sitting room. The time it took to boil a full kettle of water was perfect for these preparations. A whistle part way through or even the click of a half-empty kettle turning itself off would have made her jump and interrupted the calm of this comfortable process. She saw the suggestion of boiling a small amount of water as an intrusion into her life by busybodies who didn’t understand what it meant to be old.
Would a smarter kettle have helped? Maybe. Design may make the shift to a new social practice easier but if it robs people of customary satisfactions, frustrates valued relationships and identity or blocks symbolic meanings it is likely to be resisted.
October 28, 2012 § 1 Comment
We’re used to talking about the denial of climate change but are we seeing another kind of denial at present – the denial of despair?
In Al Gore’s 2006 film, he speaks of the need to find ‘…the place between denial and despair…’ – the place from which it is possible to act on climate change. It was a perceptive phrase. It catches the psychological truth that one source of denial may be an unacknowledged despair that anything can be done. In those more hopeful times it made sense to encourage people to believe that runaway climate change could be prevented and that their actions mattered. It could truthfully be said in 2006 that despair was not the most appropriate emotion.
A changed situation
The situation in 2012 is quite different. The last year has seen increasingly disturbing weather events – droughts, floods, wildfires and unusual weather patterns – being attributed by scientists to climate change, and all taking place against a backdrop of rising CO2 emissions and the failure of international action. The view that IPCC predictions were conservative is being borne out. The world seems set on a pathway to 4 or possibly 6 degrees of warming.
In the face of this, despair may be an altogether more realistic reaction and the people one might expect to express it would be those working closest to the action – scientists, policy makers, campaigners and community activists. It is an emotion that is rarely given voice however. « Read the rest of this entry »
Finding hope from the dark side – psychoanalytic and interdisciplinary perspectives on climate change
September 30, 2012 § 3 Comments
Can grappling with the darker side of human experience help us understand the inadequate responses to climate change that we see all around us? A new book – Engaging with climate change: psychoanalytic and interdisciplinary perspectives, editor Sally Weintrobe – to which I have contributed a chapter, suggests that it can. « Read the rest of this entry »
August 27, 2012 § Leave a comment
Amongst all the hype, excitement, goodwill and enthusiasm, what does the London Olympics tell us about people’s relationship to the other-than-human world? Where does the rest of the natural world fit in this spectacular paean to human endurance and the perfectibility of the human body? It is easy to detect a flavour of bread and circuses in the whole endeavour but at a deeper level we are in a realm where politics and myth unite. « Read the rest of this entry »
Feminism and behaviour change: do current demands for environmental behaviour change disadvantage women?
July 30, 2012 § Leave a comment
What are the politics of current demands for behaviour change? Do these demands fall unequally on women and men? Do we need to think more about gender roles in creating a low-carbon society? These were the themes of a workshop I ran recently for the Green Party’s ‘Women by Name’ conference.
Because of the way domestic tasks tend to be divided, it is likely that more responsibility for reducing carbon emissions will fall on women: there is the potential to push women back into domestic practices and roles that as feminists we fought to leave behind. If using less energy means using fewer labour-saving devices then it isn’t hard to predict who is likely to be providing that labour.
Unfair family footprints
A quick glance at a family carbon footprint can be illuminating. Who is most likely to find themselves responsible for routine behavioural changes such as such as turning lights and equipment off, drying laundry outside, cooking from scratch rather than using processed foods, chopping vegetables smaller, defrosting the freezer or walking the children to school? All these activities fall within women’s traditional sphere of responsibility and are repetitive and time consuming. They add to the everyday burden of life. If taken on they can add to the stereotype of women as nagging about domestic work. In contrast tasks stereotypically done by men tend to be one-offs – doing some DIY to draught-strip the doors, ordering a new boiler or arranging insulation. So where women’s commitment to carbon reduction tends to be onerous in its everyday changes, men’s is likely to be less so. « Read the rest of this entry »
Siblings, justice and equality – Joseph Rowntree report finds that fairness and a sense of obligation matter for climate change
May 31, 2012 § Leave a comment
In thinking about people’s motivations to act on climate change, have we ignored the influence of one of the crucial relationships of family life – that of siblings?
Many appeals to the public pander to people’s self-interest and materialism, seeing them as individuals with narrow, individualistic concerns. The short-termism of this approach has been criticised very effectively from a values perspective. Commentators like Tom Crompton and Tim Kasser point out the failure of such approaches to build deeper cultural change. They argue convincingly that it is the values opposed to this individualism – values based on concerns bigger than self – that need to be triggered if we are to address multiple social ills. Justice and equality figure strongly amongst these values but the psychological dynamics that lie behind them are not often discussed.
Siblings are the template
Sibling relationships provide the template for lateral relationships with peers in adult life and can profoundly affect people’s ideas on justice and equality. The childhood refrain ‘It’s not fair,’ echoes in the adult world in arguments about just rewards, entitlement, equality and free-loading. We can hear it in current arguments about ‘hard-working families’, ‘benefit scroungers’ and ‘irresponsible bankers’.
Sibling relationships are characterised on the positive side by solidarity, loyalty, co-operation and willingness to share. The discovery of one’s inventiveness and creativity often arrives (along with mischief and devilment) in first friendships. On the negative side of sibling relationships lie rage at having been displaced, rivalry, envy and the suspicion that someone else may be getting a better deal or swinging the lead. And it is amongst childhood peer networks that we often get our first taste of bullying, of ‘might is right’ and the destructive power of taunts and teasing. « Read the rest of this entry »